The incidence of risk factors for developing breast cancer
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Breast Imagining Department, Mitera Hospital, Athens, Greece
Midwifery Department, University of West Attica, Greece
Publication date: 2023-10-24
Corresponding author
Sofia Dimou   

Breast Imagining Department, Mitera Hospital, Athens, Greece
Eur J Midwifery 2023;7(Supplement 1):A94
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with an incidence 1,7 million in 2012. Breast cancer is about 25%, among women population and the fifth leading cause of mortality1,2. The aim of this review is the recognition of the breast cancer risk factors, for the early detection, diagnosis and the effective treatment strategies.

Material and Methods:
A systemic search was performed on research studies on breast cancer risk factors in PubMed and Embase databases, published between 2000 and 2022. This review considered retrospective studies, systemic reviews and meta-analysis, in English language. On research has been included studies with risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, use of oral contraceptive pills and hormonal replacement therapy, chest radiation, reproductive factors, personal or family history of breast disease, genetic pre – disposition and lifestyle such as high body mass index, exposure to tobacco and alcohol consumption, which have been associated with an increased risk for the development of breast cancer. A total number of 250 studies were retrieved, as potentially relevant. 165 studies were irrelevant, and 85 studies were eligible for further assessment. Of 53 studies that were identified, 10 were excluded, because were not relevant to chosen risk factors. 43 studies were relevant and examined in further detailed. Studies were analyzed and extracted using PRISMA flowchart.

According to the included studies the age, sex, ethnicity, use of oral contraceptive pills and hormonal replacement therapy, chest radiation, reproductive factors, personal or family history of breast disease and genetic pre – disposition were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer3-30. Also, lifestyle risk factors as obesity31-34, alcohol consumption35 and limited physical activity are strongly36-39 associated with breast cancer. However, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer risk remains controversial40-44.

Breast cancer develops through a multistep process and influenced by genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Targeted prevention strategies against these risk factors and personalized risk assessment for breast cancer screening should be taken.

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