Impact of gender on serum vitamin D level of newborns in Greece
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Department of Midwifery, School of Health & Care Sciences, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece
Biochemical Department of Tzaneio Piraeus General Hospital, Piraeus, Greece
Publication date: 2023-10-24
Corresponding author
Artemisia Kokkinari   

Department of Midwifery, School of Health & Care Sciences, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece
Eur J Midwifery 2023;7(Supplement 1):A159
Evidence reported that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) seems to be related with gender, although little is known regarding this association. This study tried to investigate the relationship between the status of infant’s 25(OH)D levels and its gender.

Material and Methods:
We studied serum 25(OH)D levels on the newborns of Greek mothers, with stratified random sampling, from 27 September 2019 to April 14, 2021. We divided our samples into female and male 25(OH)D measurements. x2 test was used to find an association between neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations and infant’s gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the strength of the association between them. Quantitative results of 25(OH)D vitamin levels on the newborns were replaced to qualitative variables assessing lack of 25(OH)D, adequacy, deficiency and severe deficiency of neonatal concentrations and were thus defined. VDD of the newborns was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations 16-29 ng/ml, lack of 25(OH)D as concentrations <15 ng/ml, severe deficiency of 25(OH)D as concentrations ≤12.5 ng/ml and adequacy of 25(OH)D as concentrations >30 ng/ml. The means ± standard deviations (SD) of 25(OH)D are presented by frequencies and percentages. The association between cord blood 25(OH)D levels and its covariates was assessed by logistic regression analysis. P value (P)<0.05 indicated a statistically significant association.

x2 test showed no correlation between 25(OH)D levels and the neononate’s gender (P=0.372). The mean values of 25(OH)D levels for young males and females were 14.40 ± 8.72 ng/mL and 14.59 ± 8.32 ng/dL, respectively.

Our study revealed no relation between neonate’s VDD and infant’s gender, in Greece. Further studies are recommended and deemed necessary that deal with a large multinational sample size and consequently more reliable. If gender is identified as another independent risk factor (RF) for VDD, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of neonate’s VDD by modifying it, giving the mothers suitable doses of vitamin D supplements. The effect of prenatal vitamin D supplementation on the occurrence of VDD will be evaluated since may be possible that the timely and effective intake of vitamin D supplements prenatally, in pregnant women or immediately after birth in the newborn itself, can reduce the risk of neonate’s VDD.

VDD, vitamin D deficiency; 25(OH)D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D; RFs, risk factors; SD, standard deviations; P, P value;
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
This research received no external funding.
AK conceived the topic; AK, MD and GI retrieved the literature; AK wrote the paper; KB collected the results of the values of 25(OH)D; MD, AL, VV and GI provided relevant methodological support and supervision. All authors contributed to editorial changes in the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.